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Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria located in the centre of the country within the Federal Capital Territory. It is a planned city and was built mainly in the 1980s, replacing the country’s most populous city of Lagos as the capital on 12 December 1991. Abuja’s geography is defined by Aso Rock, a 400-metre (1,300 ft) monolith left by water erosion. The Presidential Complex, National Assembly, Supreme Court and much of the city extend to the south of the rock. Zuma Rock, a 792-metre (2,598 ft) monolith, lies just north of the city on the expressway to Kaduna.

At the 2006 census, the city of Abuja had a population of 776,298, making it one of the ten most populous cities in Nigeria. According to the United Nations, Abuja grew by 139.7% between 2000 and 2010, making it the fastest growing city in the world. As of 2015, the city is experiencing an annual growth of at least 35%, retaining its position as the fastest-growing city on the African continent and one of the fastest-growing in the world.As of 2016, the metropolitan area of Abuja is estimated at six million persons, placing it behind only Lagos, as the most populous metro area in Nigeria.


Common features
A number of features set off Slavic from other Indo-European subgroups. The Slavic languages are an unusually numerous yet close-knit subgroup. On the whole, Slavic auxiliary words tend to be unstressed and to be incorporated into a single phonetic group or phrase with an autonomous stressed word. Inflection (i.e., the use of endings, prefixes, and vowel alternations) has persisted as the main method of differentiating grammatical meanings, although to a lesser degree in nouns than in verbs because many functions of the noun case endings may also be expressed by prepositions. Endings are largely fusional (e.g., -te means simultaneously ‘second person’ and ‘plural’). Slavic more than other languages shows verb aspect overtly. The movable stress pattern common to most South and East Slavic languages has profoundly influenced their versification.

Many linguistic devices found both in the oral tradition and in literary works of the different Slavic languages may be traced to common ancestral forms. An exuberant use of diminutives and metaphoric figures marks the Slavic oral tradition. It seems possible to reconstruct a common Proto-Slavic model of the universe as seen through language. The main feature of such a model is recurring binary (two-way) contrasts, as is evidenced by such key words as bogŭ ‘god’ from ‘a portion allotted by the gods’ and ne-bogŭ ‘not having its portion, having bad fortune.’ Such pairing of opposites recalls the ancient Iranian dualistic view of the world, a view that evidently influenced the Slavs to a degree not yet fully appreciated.

As compared with the common Indo-European scheme, the pre-Slavic cultural vocabulary seems somewhat simpler, evidently as a result of the loss of direct contact with the Southern civilizations that served as a pattern for pre-Indo-European culture. Later developments were caused largely by western European and Greek (particularly Byzantine Christian) influences and by contact with Asian and Middle Eastern cultures, which led to innovations in the vocabularies of the East Slavic and South Slavic languages. In some instances, whole series of terms for objects were borrowed into Russian and other East Slavic languages from eastern sources.

All Slavic languages are synthetic, expressing grammatical meaning through the use of affixes (suffixes and, in verbal forms, also prefixes), vowel alternations partly inherited from Indo-European, and consonant alternations resulting from linguistic processes peculiar to Slavic alone. Although analytical methods of expressing grammatical meanings (through prepositions and other “empty” grammatical words) are present in older strata of the language, they are used to the exclusion of all other means only in the case system of Modern Bulgarian and Macedonian. The tendency toward analytic expression is noticeable in everyday Russian speech, but the drift of the Slavic languages in that direction (as in the development of the western European languages) has been held back by the stabilization of the language resulting from mass communication and education.

Phonological characteristics
The systems of sounds in Slavic languages are rich in consonants, particularly in spirants (fricatives, like English s, z, sh) and affricates. That is especially true in comparison with the protolanguage and with other Indo-European languages. The affricates (which are consonant sounds like English ch, ts, begun as stops, with complete stoppage of the breath stream, and released as fricatives, with incomplete stoppage) have resulted historically from a succession of different processes of palatalization that have occurred in Slavic and are one of the most-characteristic features of Slavic phonology.